Following the signal failure of the Anglo-Indian attack upon Ctesiphon in November 1915 Sir Charles Townshend led his infantry force, the 6th Division, on a wearisome retreat back to Kut-al-Amara, arriving in early December. Aware too that his force was exhausted and unable to retreat further Townshend resolved to stay and hold Kut, a town of key importance to the British presence in the region. In this he was [...]
The First Battle of Gaza was fought on March 26, 1917, and was part of the Middle Eastern Campaign of World War I (1914-1918). Having advanced across the Sinai in the wake of victories at Romani, Magdhaba, and Rafa, British forces prepared to attack into Palestine. Blocking their path was approximately 15,000 Turkish troops defending a line stretching from Gaza southeast to Beersheba. As there were no reliable water [...]
Of all the 15th century Ottoman battles in the Balkans prior to the conquest of Constantinople, the most important was probably the Battle of Varna in 1444. Particularly if you pair its effects with those of the (second) Battle of Kosovo in 1448. Varna broke a major Hungarian-Polish alliance that had been formed to counter the Ottoman threat, so major in the fact that it had been given the [...]
During the Ottoman-Venetian Wars, the city of Candia, today Heraklion on Crete, was besieged for 21 long years. The siege of Candia, regarded as one of the longest sieges in history, lasted from 1648–1669. The Venetians had been ruling the land ever since the Fourth Crusade, and Candia was in a key position in the Mediterranean. The supremacy over the Mediterranean was the cause of numerous clashes between the [...]
Smyrna 1922: Pontian and Anatolian Greeks were victims of a broader Turkish genocidal project aimed at all Christian minorities in the Ottoman Empire. A total of more than 3.5 million Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians were killed under the successive regimes of the Young Turks and of Mustafa Kemal from roughly 1914 to 1923. Of this, as many as 1.5 million Greeks may have died. The end of the genocide marked [...]
The battle of Dervenakia is perhaps the most crucial battle of the Greek revolution. It took place in 1822 just one year after the revolution broke out and its success allowed the Greeks to continue their struggle for independence. It was July of 1822 and the Sultan upset of the revolution's success decided to send a regular army to quell any resistance once and for all. After he defeated the [...]
The Ottoman-Egyptian Invasion of Mani was a campaign during the Greek War of Independence that consisted of three battles. The Maniots fought against a combined Egyptian and Ottoman army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.