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"Little Boy" bomb dropped on Hiroshima, made with uranium-235 from Oak RidgeIn 1943, after graduating from Washington and Lee University, Bill Wilcox landed a coveted job as a government chemist and was sent to a city that didn’t exist. Oak Ridge, Tennessee, then known only as the Clinton Engineering Works, was conspicuously absent from any map. On...

Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei provided a number of scientific insights that laid the foundation for future scientists. His investigation of the laws of motion and improvements on the telescope helped further the understanding of the world and universe around him. Both led him to question the current belief of the time, that all things revolved around the...

Scientist Louis Pasteur came up with the food preparing process known as pasteurization; he also developed a vaccination for anthrax and rabies. Born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, France, Louis Pasteur discovered that microbes were responsible for souring alcohol and came up with the process of pasteurization, where bacteria is destroyed by heating beverages and...

HAARP Alaska is an auroral research program that superheats the ionosphere. From a distance, it looks like a parking lot filled with over-sized television antennae. In actuality it is the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program or HAARP, a government research facility focused on physical and electrical properties of the earth’s ionosphere. Set against the Alaskan forest, HAARP...

Wilbur and Orville Wright were American inventors and pioneers of aviation. In 1903 the Wright brothers achieved the first powered, sustained and controlled airplane flight; they surpassed their own milestone two years later when they built and flew the first fully practical airplane. Early Life Wilbur Wright was born on April 16, 1867, near Millville, Indiana. He was the...

Refrigeration is the process of creating cooling conditions by removing heat. It is mostly used to preserve food and other perishable items, preventing foodborne illnesses. It works because bacteria growth is slowed at lower temperatures. Methods for preserving food by cooling have been around for thousands of years, but the modern refrigerator is a recent invention. Today, the...

In 1742, Swedish astronomer, Anders Celsius invented the Celsius temperature scale, which was named after the inventor. Anders Celsius early became engaged in the general problem of weights and measures, including temperature measurements. Already as a student, he assisted the astronomy professor Erik Burman in meteorology observations. At that time there existed a large variety of thermometers with...

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